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Diet at gastritis: that is possible and it is impossible to eat, the table of products, an example of the week menu

Article is prepared with the assistance of the expert

Diet at gastritis: that is possible and it is impossible to eat, the table of products, an example of the week menuRaids Andrey Vasilyevich

The doctor of the first category, the specialist of the medical center "Gastro-Lyne", the associate professor of pediatrics and children's infections of Donetsk national medical university of M. Gorky, the candidate of medical sciences. More than ten years conducts gastroenterologichesky practice.

Gastritis — an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a stomach as a result of which the body ceases to process fully arriving food. "Gastritis is both at me, and at you — from first minutes of conversation emphasizes relevance of a perspective the gastroenterologist, the pediatrician Andrey Naletov. — This disease is present at 90% of the population of the countries of the former Soviet Union though clinically gastritis is shown not at all".

Dangerous delusions about an illness

There is an opinion that generally adult patients are subject to gastritis. However today it is absolutely proved that the problem mentions various segments of the population. Regardless of a sex, age and the social status. Gastritis is widespread both among children, and among teenagers, and among young mothers.

Andrey Naletov emphasizes that patients underestimate degree of gravity of gastritis. Also it is connected with delusions about the reasons and consequences of an illness.

Traditionally gastritis is associated with the wrong food habits and stresses. Therefore people think that for a solution it is enough to reconsider a diet and to spend on drink sedative preparations. However it not absolutely so.

Infections, junk food and an overstrain can provoke sharp gastritis or be an incitement to development of the chronic. There are also internal risk factors. In particular, genetic predisposition to diseases of a gastrointestinal tract.

But at 90% of patients chronic gastritis develops as a result of infection with a pathogenic microbe. On mucous a stomach the bacterium of Helicobacter pylori (helikobakter) parasitizes. And it means specific preventive and therapeutic measures.

Diet at gastritis: that is possible and it is impossible to eat, the table of products, an example of the week menu

Bacterium a helikobakter under a microscope

Ways of infection: an illness from a kiss

"Helikobakter is transferred from the person to the person. The microbe perishes in air, but lives in a saliva. It is possible to catch during a kiss, when using of one table subjects. Often infection happens in a family. For example, the infected mother licked a baby's dummy or a spoon of the kid. Therefore, having revealed a helikobakter at one and family members, we recommend to pass inspection to all relatives living nearby" — Andrey Vasilyevich tells.

The gastroenterologist emphasizes that in most cases the helikobakter gets to the patient's organism in the childhood. And the bacterium can not prove for many years if the patient leads a healthy lifestyle, eats properly, has no other chronic diseases.

If the bacterium has no an effect, and the patient disturbs nothing, the modern domestic medicine doesn't recommend to kill a microbe medicamentally by means of antibiotics. Advise the patient to adhere to certain rules of life and food, to strengthen protective functions of an organism. But, of course, it is always necessary to be on the alert. As it — the "charge of the slowed-down action" capable to detonate at any time. For example, gastritis is shown when immunity is weakened.

"Having got into a stomach, the infection can provoke sharp gastritis. If in time not to pay attention, chronic gastritis develops. The following stage — stomach ulcer or a duodenum. And stomach ulcer is capable to be transformed to a cancer" — the doctor tells.

Often gastritis is revealed in the period of an aggravation when harmful action of a helikobakteriya amplifies under the influence of a provocative factor. It causes clinical symptomatology.

Traditionally the aggravation at patients happens to gastritis in the spring and in the fall. At this time immunity weakens, people "are eaten off" after the Lent, and in the menu there are seasonal fresh vegetables and fruit. They are rich with rough cellulose which to an organism in the presence of gastritis is heavy for digesting.

Classification and diagnostics

Gastritis has difficult, branched classification. Doctors distinguish gastritises on an etiology, localizations of inflammatory process, a damage rate mucous, to nature of acid-forming function.

For example, allocate erosive gastritis. At such gastritis mucous a stomach of the patient it isn't simply inflamed — on her there are superficial defects promoting a further yazvoobrazovaniye. However the erosion doesn't reach a muscular layer of a wall of a stomach. Deeper defects reaching a muscular layer already speak about existence of stomach ulcer.

Andrey Naletov notes that to diagnose gastritis and is competent only the doctor following the results of special researches can define its look. Diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori is carried out at endoscopic research and a capture of test (bioptat) of a mucous membrane. Simply patients call this procedure "swallow of a probe". Also there is more modern and painless approach — respiratory tests. This way is recommended for diagnosis of an infection, including, and in the child's organism.

Blood test which can be recommended to the patient at suspicion for Helicobacter pylori, isn't the sufficient basis for confirmation or a denial of the diagnosis. This research informatively only for 40-50%.

Features and symptomatology

At the narrow-minded level it is important to have idea of distinctions between sharp and chronic forms of gastritis. It is necessary not to "miss" a problem and in time to address to the expert.

Sharp form

Sharp gastritis is considered an acute inflammatory disease of a stomach. It results from influence of various factors: mechanical, thermal, chemical, bacterial.

So, the spicy food, alcohol, an infection can provoke injuries of a mucous membrane of a stomach. And also number of medicines. For example, aspirin or antibiotics. In the list of the reasons of sharp gastritis — stresses. It can be shown also against other postponed diseases. For example, sharp intestinal infection.

The patient notices inflammation signs in the first 12-24 hours after an error in a diet or contact with other provocative factor.

Symptoms of sharp gastritis:

  • appetite decreases;
  • weight or pain in an epigastriya — the top part of a stomach, area takes an intercostal triangle;
  • in a mouth specific smack is felt;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • the unpleasant eructation is observed;
  • the head is turned and hurts;
  • the breakdown is felt;
  • the chair becomes liquid and frequent;
  • temperature increase is possible, but the subfebrilnykh of figures usually isn't higher.

Sharp gastritis is shown suddenly, characterized by bright symptomatology which quickly abates. On average attacks stop in the first 48 hours.

Chronic form

Such definition is given to a chronic and recidivous inflammation of a mucous membrane of a stomach. Feature that chronic gastritis isn't surely shown by symptoms. But thus in a mucous membrane of a stomach of the patient all the same there are specific structural changes.

The patient takes periodic discomfort in a stomach for a banal indisposition. To facilitate a state, swallows of the advertized pills "from weight in a stomach". Thus keeps a habitual vital rhythm, even without suspecting "gastritis" about the diagnosis.

This illness not necessarily is a consequence of sharp gastritis. On the contrary, physicians are more inclined to consider chronic gastritis at the patient as the separate illness provoked by a helikobakteriya.

Physicians argue on symptomatology and classification of this type of gastritis. Often complaints of patients don't correspond to a picture which comes to light by results of endoscopic research. Moreover, chronic gastritis can be found incidentally during diagnostics of other problems with digestive organs of the patient.

Nevertheless, some characteristic symptoms of chronic gastritis, it is possible to allocate:

  • epigastralny pains or burning in the top half of a stomach;
  • feeling of fast saturation and overflow after food;
  • heartburn;
  • nausea;
  • the increased gas generation in the top part of a stomach;
  • eructation;
  • small appetite.

Against a chronic disease at the patient atrophic gastritis can develop. It means that the mucous ceases to synthesize the substances which are directly participating in digestion. Process of an atrophy is irreversible, it refer to precancer states.

Medical foods: 5 councils of the gastroenterologist

Andrey Naletov notes that the correct diet at gastritis plays an important, but not key role. Before correcting the patient's diet, it is important to eliminate the illness reason. In some cases for destruction of an infection of Helicobacter pylori to the patient antibiotics can be appointed. And here the doctor has to register treatment only.

"How to eat at gastritis? The diet begins with change of a way of life of the patient. The first. At gastritis refusal of smoking, the use of hard and low alcohol alcoholic beverages is important. Especially, aerated. The second. Strict observance of rules of personal hygiene. It is necessary to watch purity of hands, at office and at home to use a separate cup, in time to change a toothbrush" — Andrey Vasilyevich recommends.

As for the organization of a diet at gastritis, the doctor advises patients to adhere to five key rules.

  1. Fractional menu. Food at gastritis has to be frequent. But is it is necessary in the small portions, at regular intervals. Optimum option: the patient eats four-five times a day each three hours. The last stolovaniye — not later 19:00. All food to patients with the diagnosis should be chewed "gastritis" well.
  2. Processing of food. At gastritis products have to be processed thermally. Even vegetables and fruit in crude option — an exceptional case. Meat and fish aren't used pieces. These products separate from bones, skin, sinews and prepare in the form of meatballs, cutlets, stuffed cabbage.
  3. Preparation of dishes. Patients are forbidden to eat strongly hot or strongly cold dishes with gastritis. The food can be steamed, cooked or baked without crust. Anything fried, marinated, tinned, fermented at the diagnosis "gastritis" is impossible. Kashi is cooked on water or on half milk without butter. Moreover, in a stage of an exacerbation of gastritis and in the presence of the expressed clinical symptomatology it is better to be guided by recommendations about cooking which are registered by a medical diet No. 1. It was developed by the founder of the Russian gastroenterology Manuil Pevzner. In particular, I go to use in the wiped look more preferably. Products bring to a condition of a souffle or paste a sieve, and also the blender. The table No. 1 is usually appointed during an exacerbation of stomach ulcer.
  4. Plentiful drink. At gastritis it is necessary to drink much. Especially alkaline drinks without gas. Patients with gastritis suit such waters: "Yessentuki", "Borjomi", "Mirgorod". To remove carbon dioxide, the bottle is uncorked and placed in a basin with warm water for about 20 minutes. Such drink is useful before meals. Except medicinal water, at gastritis compotes from dried fruits and fresh berries are shown to patients.
  5. First courses. Soups are obligatory in the patient's diet with gastritis. However the preference is given to vegetarian recipes or the second or third not rich meat broths.

In many respects the dietary diet at gastritis reminds the menu recommended to children of the first years of life. There is no place fat, fried and sweet. Dishes prepare without seasonings and with the minimum quantity of flavoring spices. And to facilitate digestion process, the food is as much as possible crushed.

Why the table No. 5 is recommended

Andrey Naletov notes that patients with chronic gastritis have to be guided by recommendations of a diet (a medical table) No. 5 on Pevznera. A table No. 5 also call hepatic as it promotes improvement of work of the body of the same name.

The food provided by the fifth table at gastritis against drug treatment helps to reduce an inflammation mucous a stomach, normalizes work of bodies of a digestive tract.

This diet has subspecies with the corresponding markings. In these options the main menu is corrected under needs of patients with other diagnoses. For example, the table No. 5p is appointed at sharp pancreatitis or an exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. And the diet No. 5a is recommended to patients with diseases of a liver and gall bladder.

The fifth table is advised also patients with an excess weight for safe weight loss. This menu allows to put a figure in order gradually, without prejudice to health. On such diet of people doesn't starve, eats it is balanced. Patients who began to adhere to the fifth table, note improvement of a condition of skin, a hair and inflow of forces.

Diet depending on acidity

Andrey Naletov emphasizes that the most often chronic gastritis proceeds with the increased acidity. The lowered acidity is observed at people of advanced age or if in an organism of the patient atrophic process is already started.

Diet at gastritis and a diet at gastritis with the lowered acidity are similar to the increased acidity. It is necessary for patients four - or five times food. And also it is important to clean from the menu whole milk, smoked products and spices, hot spices, canned food. But there are also nuances.

Four important points in the organization of a diet of patients with the diagnosis "gastritis" at the reduced acidity.

  1. Principles of a shchazheniye. During an exacerbation of gastritis to the patient with the reduced acidity for five-seven days the diet providing a mechanical and chemical shchazheniye registers. But with preservation in the menu of chemical activators of secretion. The food has to move warm, and it is important to boil products well. Any fried "with a crust" dishes. Such approach helps to remove an inflammation. And well crushed food is digested and acquired better.
  2. Grocery "taboos". At patients with the reduced acidity secretion of gastric juice is reduced, the insufficient amount of hydrochloric acid is developed. It is heavy to organism to digest the products sated with rough vegetable cellulose. It, for example, garden radish, grapes, gooseberry, dates. They are inadmissible in the menu. Also it is necessary to exclude food with the high content of connecting fabrics. It, in particular, leather of birds and fish, fat and sinewy meat, fat, cartilages.
  3. Stimulation. At chronic gastritis with the lowered secretion the main diet of the patient is under construction taking into account need of stimulation of the ferruterous device mucous a stomach. And at a moderate aggravation introduction to the menu of the patient of soft chemical stimulators is possible. It is tea, rather weak coffee, cocoa, juice from vegetables and fruit, the fat-free fish and meat broths, first courses from fresh vegetables.
  4. Drink. As drink at chronic gastritis with the lowered acidity reception of mineral waters of a strong mineralization is recommended to patients. For example, "Yessentuki-17". And here at the increased acidity of a stomach reception of mineral waters of a small mineralization — "Yessentuki-4" is shown to patients.

With raised and with the lowered acidity the patient can independently paint the detailed menu for every day within a diet at gastritis. Proceeding from the financial opportunities, in dependence of a seasonal factor. However the doctor directs, makes the general recommendations, monitors results.

Diet at gastritis: that is possible and it is impossible to eat, the table of products, an example of the week menu

That it is possible to eat: table

Food at gastritis of a stomach and the medical menu needs to be planned for every day, being guided by rules of the fifth table. The attending physician will prompt the list of products which are useful and have to be in a diet. And also will define the list of those delicacies about which at gastritis it is necessary to forget.

The basic food table at gastritis in which the main recommended and forbidden products are allocated is given below.

The table — Healthy nutrition for patients with the diagnosis "gastritis"

Grocery groupsIt is possibleIt is impossible
Drink— Weak black tea with milk addition;
— drinks from a dogrose and a camomile;
— compote from dried fruits and fresh berries;
— sweet fruit drink;
— sweet kissel
— Coffee;
— cocoa;
— sweet aerated water;
— alcohol;
— green and red tea;
— juice
First courses— Meatless vegetable soup;
— dairy with macaroni;
— a red borsch on vegetable broth;
— vegetables pearl barley soup
— Fat fish broth;
— fat meat broth;
— first courses with mushrooms;
— a green borsch with a sorrel;
— a borsch with haricot;
— okroshka
Porridges and macaroni— Buckwheat;
— the rice;
— the oat;
— macaroni with vegetables or cottage cheese, without fat sauces and seasonings
— Pea, lentil and other bean;
— the pearl-barley;
— yachnevy;
— the corn;
— fat and sharp pastes
Meat, fish, offal and seafood— Chicken;
— rabbit;
— low-fat grades of beef;
— beef tongue;
— hake;
— pollock;
— pike perch
— Pork;
— fat;
— offal;
— sausages and sausages;
— canned food;
— red fish;
— salty fish;
— smoked fish;
— caviar;
— crabsticks;
— shrimps
Bakery products— Crackers from rye and otrubny bread;
— not rich pastries with berries;
— not rich pastries with cottage cheese;
— not rich pastries with boiled meat or fish
— Fresh white loaf;
— fried pies;
— fancy bread;
— pastries from puff pastry;
— pancakes
Dairy products— Low-fat kefir;
— low-fat cottage cheese;
— low-fat yogurt without additives;
— low-fat milk;
— low-fat sour cream (seldom)
— Cheeses;
— products fat contents, dairy and sour-milk with high percent;
— cream;
— serum;
— fermented baked milk
Vegetables, greens, mushrooms— Potato;
— carrots;
— cabbage: color, Beijing, broccoli;
— vegetable marrows;
— beet;
— celery;
— pumpkin;
— tomatoes — it is rare;
— a white cabbage — it is rare in a borsch
Note: patients at gastritis eat the specified products mainly after heat treatment
— Mushrooms;
— corn;
— sorrel;
— spinach;
— radish;
— garden radish;
— eggplants;
— onions;
— garlic;
— parsley;
— fennel
Fruit, berries, nuts— The sweet apples which are (especially baked);
— raspberry;
— cherry;
— plum;
— currant;
— strawberry
— prunes;
— dried apricots
Note: patients at gastritis eat the specified products mainly after heat treatment
— All sour fruit and berries;
— citrus;
— any nuts
Desserts— Galetny cookies;
— zephyr;
— biscuit;
— caramel;
— honey;
— not sour jam diluted with water or tea
— Chocolate;
— ice cream;
— pies;
— gozinaki;
— condensed milk;
— chocolates
Eggs— The omelet from protein of eggs steamed— Fried eggs from whole chicken or quail eggs;
— boiled chicken or quail eggs
Oil— Refined vegetable of sunflower seeds — to 15 g per day— Creamy;
— not refined vegetable;
— smalets
Sauces, spices, seasonings— Salt — to 10 g per day;
— Vanillin — only for aroma;
— Sugar — it is moderate
— Ketchup;
— mayonnaise;
— adjika;
— mustard;
— vinegar

 

The medical diet at gastritis provides good and tasty nutrition. Other family members also can join such table. The list of the resolved products allows to experiment. For example, the patients having gastritis can do cottage cheese sweet casseroles or vegetable pies. Kissel will be pleasant to both adults, and children. Won't leave indifferent and fish pie or a lapshevnik.

Diet at gastritis: that is possible and it is impossible to eat, the table of products, an example of the week menu

Diet at gastritis: an approximate diet for a week

To patients who keep to a diet at gastritis, advise in advance to plan the menu for a week with recipes. The accurate plan of action will allow to avoid harmful having a snack. It is much simpler when in the refrigerator of the patient necessary products are prepared. And the person knows, as well as that it is possible to prepare quickly from them.

The approximate plan of a week diet of the patient who receives treatment concerning chronic gastritis is given below. Such menu is described in books about clinical dietology and medical foods.

Monday

  • Morning — 7:00. Porridge with an omelet from egg whites. Tea.
  • Reinforcement — 10:00. Baked apples.
  • Lunch — 13:00. Vegetable low-fat soup. Rice porridge with boiled chicken. Compote.
  • Reinforcement — 16:00. Sweet crackers. Drink from a dogrose.
  • Dinner — 18:30-19:00. Mashed potatoes with a slice of low-fat fish. Semolina pudding. Kissel.
  • For the night. Glass of low-fat kefir.

Tuesday

  • Morning — 7:00. The fish cutlet steamed. Boiled potatoes. Tea.
  • Reinforcement — 10:00. Low-fat cottage cheese.
  • Lunch — 13:00. Pearl-barley vegetables soup. Buckwheat cereal with boiled meat. Compote.
  • Reinforcement — 16:00. Sweet crackers. Carrot juice.
  • Dinner — 18:30-19:00. The chicken meatballs baked in an oven. Mashed potatoes on water. Charlotte. Tea.
  • For the night — 21:00. Glass of low-fat kefir.

Diet at gastritis: that is possible and it is impossible to eat, the table of products, an example of the week menu

Wednesday

  • Morning — 7:00. Rice porridge with meatballs from meat of a turkey. Tea with milk.
  • Reinforcement — 10:00. Low-fat sour cream cottage cheese casserole.
  • Lunch — 13:00. Vegetable soup. The cutlets from meat of a rabbit prepared together with vegetable stew. Compote.
  • Reinforcement — 16:00. Sweet crackers. Drink from a dogrose.
  • Dinner — 18:30-19:00. Porridge on half milk with chicken meatballs. Juice from fresh berries.
  • For the night — 21:00. Glass of low-fat kefir.

Thursday

  • Morning — 7:00. Buckwheat cereal with a proteinaceous omelet. Tea with milk.
  • Reinforcement — 10:00. Kissel.
  • Lunch — 13:00. Vegetable soup. Chicken meatballs with boiled vegetables puree. Compote.
  • Reinforcement — 16:00. Sweet crackers. Compote from dried fruits.
  • Dinner — 18:30-19:00. Mashed potatoes on water with boiled fish. Tea.
  • For the night — 21:00. Glass of low-fat kefir.

Friday

  • Morning — 7:00. Boiled language. Cream of wheat on half milk. Tea.
  • Reinforcement — 10:00. The baked apple.
  • Lunch — 13:00. Vegetable small vermicelli soup. Mashed potatoes on water with boiled meat of a turkey. Compote.
  • Reinforcement — 16:00. Galetny cookies. Drink from a dogrose.
  • Dinner — 18:30-19:00. Potato baked pudding with mincemeat. Tea.
  • For the night — 21:00. Glass of low-fat kefir.

Diet at gastritis: that is possible and it is impossible to eat, the table of products, an example of the week menu

Saturday

  • Morning — 7:00. The meat souffle baked in an oven. Porridge on half milk. Tea.
  • Reinforcement — 10:00. Souffle carrot and apple.
  • Lunch — 13:00. Vegetable rice soup. Buckwheat cereal with steam cutlets from meat of a rabbit. Carrot and banana juice.
  • Reinforcement — 16:00. Sweet crackers. Tea.
  • Dinner — 18:30-19:00. Mashed potatoes on water. Boiled fish. Drink from a dogrose.
  • For the night — 21:00. Glass of low-fat kefir.

Sunday

  • Morning — 7:00. Porridge on half milk. Steam fish cutlets from low-fat grades of fish. Tea.
  • Reinforcement — 10:00. Low-fat cottage fresh cheese. The baked apple.
  • Lunch — 13:00. Vegetable soup. Boiled potatoes. Beef Stroganoff from beef. Compote.
  • Reinforcement — 16:00. Sweet crackers. Tea.
  • Dinner — 18:30-19:00. The fish baked in an oven. Boiled carrot puree. Tea.
  • For the night — 21:00. Glass of low-fat kefir.

Similar dietary food is appointed both at gastritis at children, and at gastritis at adults. An exception — kids about one year. Also individual treatment registers for pregnant patients and to women in the period of a lactation. Here the diet can be expanded, modified. It is important that the woman received a maximum of useful substances from food. As no vitamins B tablets are capable to compete with natural products.

How many the diet at stomach gastritis has to be kept? Strict control is necessary at an aggravation and in the first months after. But in an ideal the patient with the diagnosis "gastritis" should adhere to the recommended table and during remission. Though, expansion the menu and festive exceptions are possible. If only reasonably and if the speech doesn't go about coffee, cigarettes, alcohol and greasy food.