Carbohydrates – the organic compounds participating in fermental synthesis, production of organic acids, formation of cages, muscles, joints. Blood and digestive systems are included into a zone of their "interests". The correct metabolism — the main objective of carbohydrates. The result of such exchange — an organism receives daily amount of energy for activity.
The group of carbohydrates consists of a great number of representatives, they contain in the wide range of products. They equally bring not everyone benefit for a human body! How the love to sweet, to bread and sparkling water leads to fat deposits, and unloved porridges, boiled vegetables give energy without "side effects"? In what food carbohydrates don't harm and from what it is necessary to refrain?
Carbohydrates carry out function of the main supplier of power stocks of a human body. It isn't recommended to exclude them from food categorically. It is possible to include any food in the list of the products containing carbohydrates, but by amount of saccharites champions are phytogenesis products. Meat and fish, cheeses and sour-milk production have small quantity.
Question "what products are considered as carbohydrates?" it is necessary to correct a little. In pure form saccharites meet only as substances: glucose, lactose, starch and others (sucrose — an exception).
Pays off concerning a tone of the person. The active organism experiencing regular physical activities (sport, a hard work), will demand completion of energy consumption twice bigger. It is enough to office worker to use 250–300 gr saccharites in day. It is required to the hockey player or the bricklayer 500–600 gr (during intensive trainings the requirement can increase to 800 gr). To watch closely what products are carbohydrates with a small share of other substances, and to control their use in food, it is necessary for the people losing weight.
Features of classification
All carbohydrates divide into two big groups: slow (difficult) and fast (simple). Distinguish monosaccharides and bioses from the last. We will consider in more detail, what products (substances) enter carbohydrates.
- Glucose — has the widest circulation. It is plentifully presented in fruit and berry cultures. Supports work of a brain, muscles, creates glycogen stocks.
- Fructose — is qualitatively similar to glucose. Its assimilation in intestines happens more slowly, and the delay in a liver rescues from excessive sugar (level of sweet higher than sucrose).
- Galactose — derivative of dairy sugar (result of splitting).
- Sucrose — actually pure sugar. In an organism quickly breaks up to monosaccharides if to use in the liquid state (reed/beet juice).
- Lactose — its properties are in more detail described below.
- The maltose (malt sugar) — turns out when splitting a glycogen and starch in a stomach and intestines. Occurs in "original" in beer, honey, the sprouted grains and malt.
- Starch — delivers 80% of all carbohydrates for an organism. Disintegration happens in a gastrointestinal tract, and begins in a mouth by means of a chewing and salivation.
- Glycogen — bodies and muscles use it as fuel. It is restored by glucose resynthesis.
- Pectins — are useful in food and treatment of stomach diseases and intestines.
- Cellulose — removes cholesterol, on chemical structure is similar to polysaccharides.
That advantage, and that harm
All fast saccharites have the short period of disintegration. Their excessive use conducts to fat accumulation. For weight reduction they are useless, are sometimes dangerous (diabetes). In what products bad carbohydrates contain in big concentration? Fruit with big sweet, white bread, products of confectioners, practically all types of fast food, jam, jam, jam, honey, potatoes.
Slow (polysaccharides / difficult) carbohydrates are acquired long enough to feed a human body some hours. The balanced and timely use of polysaccharides — exclusive advantage for health and weight loss.
What foodstuff contains carbohydrates slow?
Root crops (minus potatoes),
vegetable cultures and greens,
To define amount of carbohydrates
There is a set of online services with calculators where it is quickly checked the contents in food of substances (proteins, carbohydrates, fats) and caloric content. It is enough to choose or enter the name of the interesting product, the answer is instantly output in the corresponding window of service. Other option — to use the special table.
Carbohydrates in food:
the table for weight loss and control of the maintenance of the basic food elements. Data are provided on 100 gr.
Dairy sugar (lactose) belongs to group of simple carbohydrates (bioses). It is the main carbohydrate element of all molokoprodukt. Definition of quantity in milk-containing products is especially important for adults. The enzyme which is responsible for lactose splitting starts being developed by an organism in much smaller quantities with age (sometimes it isn't produced at all). In a digestive tract there is a process of intolerance of milk, and it turns out that it is much easier for the matured organism to split not milk, but products, derivative of it. As the help the table provided below will serve.
Not to carry too far
Without carbohydrates normal functioning of an organism is impossible. Fats very slowly will be burned, process can stop. Growing thin it isn't necessary to exclude carbohydrates absolutely. These are what products will get under restriction? Sugar, our favourite creations of confectioners, products from flour (bread from bran isn't counted). To lose weight, it is necessary to include in the menu of a dish, the containing useful carbohydrates — till a lunch inclusive. Diets where saccharites will appear under a total ban, will hardly bring benefit, for an organism it is a zhutchayshy stress.
For himself and the health it is necessary to show consideration, you shouldn't neglect diseases consultations at specialists nutritionists. Connected with a gastrointestinal tract — an obligatory occasion of record on conversation with the good doctor. To risk health because of a doubtful diet … You not the foolish sixteen-year-old girl model, finally!
The Glycemic Index (GI) – a special indicator. It reflects impact of the used food on change of amount of sugar in blood. GI of glucose is appropriated value 100, all other products with high percent of carbohydrates have an individual glycemic index. When comparing with glucosic GI they display a picture of speed of splitting and digestion of carbohydrates.
Definition "a glycemic index" appeared in the 80th of the XX century. For the people having diabetes made experiment. A research objective — drawing up the list of food, to them ideally suited. Without control of level of glucose life of diabetchik became complicated repeatedly.
Lately actually the glycemic index is appropriated to all food. It became much simpler to ordinary person to construct the diet concerning carbohydrates. High glycemic level (more than 70) is characteristic for fast (simple) carbohydrates, respectively low GI – for difficult. At small GI splitting of carbohydrates is slowed down, they carry out the functions without excess problems for health therefore they should be included in the diet "richly" more successfully, that is without wasting time on trifles.
Such ambiguous behavior of saccharites only confirms popular wisdom that "everything is good moderately". The organism without carbohydrates loses energy, the tone of activity falls, and excessive glucose adds problems pressure and obesity. The competent food constructed on balance of carbohydrates is "balance" between the difficult and simple carbohydrates which got with food. Correctly made menu will help to keep long time excellent health.
Surplus of sucrose has impact on an exchange of fats, strengthens their accumulation.
When a lot of sugar arrives, transformation into fat of all substances containing in food (starch, fat, protein) amplifies. Regulation of a fatty exchange is influenced considerably by the volume of the sugar coming to an organism. Frequent consumption of sugar breaks an exchange of cholesterol and increases its level in blood serum. Excess of sugar causes intestinal microflora dysfunction. Thus dangerous microorganisms actively develop, intensity of putrefactive processes grows in intestines, there is a meteorizm. The use of fructose reduces extent of the listed threats to a minimum.
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