The diabetes of the second type which is also called by an illness of "advanced age" happens at people is more senior than 40 years. Excess weight – one of the reasons capable to provoke the beginning of a disease. For effective control of increase of symptoms it is obligatory to adhere to a high security of food. In spite of the fact that the diet at diabetes 2 go type rigid, is required to observe it during all life. Its main tasks are decrease in body weight of the patient, reduction of load of a pancreas.
Principles of food
Diabetes of the second type is resulted by a chronic metabolic disorder. Misoperation of a gastrointestinal tract is connected with shortage and inability completely to acquire glucose. At an easy form of diabetes of the second type – the diet can be treatment and it won't be required use of special medicines.
In spite of the fact that for each patient the, individual diet is formed, on set of the general signs meal for patients with diabetes of the second type is taken out in the uniform scheme which is called "table No. 9". Proceeding from this basic diet, the individual scheme corrected under each case is created.
- In medical foods the ratio of "belki:zhiry:uglevoda" is very important. In this case it has to be "16%:24%:60%". Such distribution provides optimum receipt in an organism of sick "construction" material.
- For each patient the individual daily need for calories pays off. The amount of the energy which arrived with food shouldn't exceed spent by an organism. Usually doctors advise to establish daily norm for women in 1200 Kcal, and for men in 1500 Kcal.
- First of all it is necessary to exclude from sugar food, having replaced them.
- The diet of the patient has to be vitaminized, and is rich with microcells and cellulose.
- The use of animal fats is required to be reduced twice.
- The increase in number of meals to 5 or 6 times is obligatory. And each of them should be combined with physical activities correctly. Also select the use of drugs (sakharosnizhayushchikh).
- The dinner has to be not later than 2 hours before going to bed.
- It is required that breaks between meals made not less than three hours.
It is very important to the person having diabetes to make competently a diet and to choose the corresponding menu, using recommendations of the doctor at a choice of products. It is impossible to be engaged in amateur performance as it can aggravate a course of disease.
The resolved products and ready dishes
The patient with such diagnosis should keep to a diet for life. Right choice of the resolved products will be able to provide to the person worthy life. The patient is allowed to eat certain products.
- Bread. In a small amount diabetic or rye bread is resolved. The product prepared from bran is freely allowed to application. Usual bakery products and macaroni are allowed in the extremely limited look or are at all excluded.
- Vegetables, greens. It is possible for the patient with diabetes and it is necessary to add fresh vegetables to the diet. The cabbage, a sorrel, vegetable marrows, cucumbers, onions and other sources of food fibers well influence a metabolism and its normalization promote. Boiled, beet and carrots no more than 200 g per day are authorized to use potatoes. Corn and products of family bean it is possible to eat with care and in small amounts.
- From fruit and berries beyond all bounds it is possible to eat a cranberry, a quince and a lemon. It is authorized to eat other products from this group in limited quantity. Completely forbidden fruit and berries isn't present.
- From spices and seasonings to resolved it is possible to carry pepper, cinnamon, spicy herbs and mustard. And low-fat house mayonnaise to use seasonings for salads seldom and with care.
- Low-fat meat and fish broths too in the list available to application. Also vegetable soups are resolved.
- Cheese and kefir with the lowered fat content also receive green light.
- Fish. The principle at the use of fish in food: the less it contains fats, the better for an organism. It is allowed to eat per day 150 g of fish.
- It is very important to patient to limit itself in the use of fat meat. It it is possible no more 100g per day only in the boiled or baked look.
- Grain. The person having diabetes of the second type in the diagnosis is able to afford oat, yachnevy and buckwheat cereals. The use of pearl and millet barley is required to be reduced.
- From drinks it is necessary to prefer grass infusions, green teas. It is possible to drink milk and ground coffee.
- Cottage cheese of the lowered fat content is resolved in pure form, and as baked puddings, cheesecakes and other ready dishes.
- Because of the cholesterol of egg which is a part it is possible to eat not more often than once a week in number of no more than two pieces. Some options of preparation are authorized: an omelet, boiled soft-boiled or in cool, or their addition in structure of other dishes.
Apparently from the list, sick diabetes of the second type rather large number of various products is authorized to make the menu various, tasty, completely balanced.
The forbidden products
As diabetes is very serious disease affecting all metabolism in general the list of the forbidden products is rather great and various.
- Cookies, pies, cakes and other sweets are forbidden. As their taste is based on inclusion in composition of sugar, it is necessary to be careful to eat them. The exception is made pastries and other made especially for patients with diabetes on the basis of sakharozamenitel.
- It is impossible to use bread from fancy pastry.
- Fried potato, white rice and the stung vegetables have to disappear from a table of the patient.
- It is impossible to use sharp, smoked, strongly salty and fried food.
- Sausages also should be excluded from the patient's diet.
- It is impossible to eat even in small quantities butter, fat mayonnaise, margarine, cooking and meat fats.
- Semolina and racial grain, and also pasta similarly get under a ban.
- It is impossible to eat also a house pickles with marinades.
- Alcohol is strictly forbidden.
It is important to remember that observance of a diet, and an exception of the menu of the products forbidden at this disease will help to avoid many complications of diabetes, such as a blindness, cardiovascular diseases, an angiopatiya and so on. Opportunity to support a good figure will be additional plus.
Advantage of food fibers
Food fibers are small elements of vegetable food which aren't affected by the enzymes promoting splitting of products. They pass through a gastrointestinal tract without being digested.
They possess sakharo-and lipidosnizhayushchy action. Food fibers reduce absorption of glucose in intestines of the person, in addition create feeling of saturation. Because of these properties they have to enter the menu of patients with diabetes surely.
Are rich with food fibers:
- not sifted flour;
- rough bran;
- rye and oat flour;
- raspberry and many other products.
The amount of cellulose which is required to the patient with diabetes, makes 354 g per day. And it is important that 51 its % arrived from vegetables, 40% from grain, its derivatives, and 9% from berries, mushrooms.
For those patients for whom presence sweet in food is obligatory, were developed, the special substances adding sweet taste to a product. They share on two groups.
- Kalorigennye. It is obligatory to consider their quantity at calculation of a power component of food. Treat them: sorbite, also fructose ksilit.
- Nekalorigennye. Atsesulfam potassium, aspartame, ciklamat and saccharin – here the main representatives of this group.
In shops it is possible to meet pastries, drinks, candies and other sweet products in which sugar is replaced with these substances.
It is necessary to remember that such products can contain also fat which quantity too is required to be controlled.
The approximate menu at diabetes of the second type
At diabetes reduction of the consumed portions becomes one of important conditions, increasing number of meals.
The approximate menu and diet of the patient looks so.
- First breakfast. Best of all in the 7th mornings. For breakfast it is possible to eat porridges from the allowed list. They start a metabolism. Also well since morning there is a cottage cheese or eggs dishes. Has to make 25% of all daily need for energy.
- Second breakfast (having a snack). Cottage cheese dishes or fruit are useful. 15% of the resolved calories.
- The lunch has to be at 13-14 o'clock and make 30% of a daily diet.
- At 16:00 there comes mid-morning snack time. 10% of all caloric content. Fruit will be the best decision.
- The dinner has to be at 18:00 last meal. It makes the remained 20%.
- In case of strong hunger it is possible to allow having a snack for the night at 22:00. Kefir or milk will well remove feeling of hunger.
The diet at diabetes has to be developed together with the attending physician. Depending on disease degree in it any products can be added or be cleaned. Also other associated diseases can influence the menu.
It is important to remember that healthy nutrition, bringing visible result, isn't panacea. It is obligatory to combine it with easy physical activities and drug treatment. Only the integrated approach to treatment and implementation of all instructions can guarantee a stable state and lack of complications.